Formula 1 Turbo Engines Return 2014 - How It All Started [Documentary HD]


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F1 Turbo Engines - How it all started

In 2014 Formula 1 will enter a new era. After three years of planning and
development, the most significant technical change to hit the sport in
more than two decades is introduced. Engine regulations form the major
part of the coming revolution, with the introduction of a new generation
of Power Units that combine a 1.6 litre V6 turbocharged engine with
energy recovery systems that will dramatically increase efficiency by
harvesting energy dissipated as heat in the exhaust or brakes.
The maximum power of the new Power Unit will exceed the output of
current V8 F1 engines however fuel efficiency will be radically improved.
With only 100kg permitted for the race, the new units will use 35% less
fuel than their predecessors.
"From 2014 we will bring engines to the fore and redress the balance in
F1. An engine is the heart of a car, from next year it returns to the heart
of our sport."
Alain Prost, Renault ambassador and four-times Formula 1 World
For several years, Renault has used its racing know-how to develop fuel
efficient engines for road cars, notably its Energy range. The objectives
are clear: maintain or improve driving pleasure, vitality and acceleration
with downsized engines to achieve lower fuel consumption and CO
Renault has employed these principles in developing the F1 Power
Unit, creating a complete, and genuine, circular development process
between road and track.
For these reasons, Renault has named the F1 Power Unit series
'Energy F1'; clearly illustrating that the F1 Power Unit shares the same
DNA as its road-going cousins.
"From next year, one of greatest challenges in F1 will be to maximize
energy efficiency and fuel economy while maintaining the power output
and performance expected of F1 cars. Renault has pioneered this
technology in its road car engine range with the Energy series. Naming
the Power Unit Energy F1 creates an unbroken range, from the
Clio through to our competition department."
Jean-Michel Jalinier, President of Renault Sport F1


1.6L direct injection T
urbo V6.

Unique pressure charging architecture: single turbine and
compressor (plus E-motor allowed).

5 Power Units per driver per season in 2014, reducing to 4 in
subsequent years.
Strong focus on improved vehicle fuel efficiency / reduced fuel
consumption :

Fuel quantity for the race limited to 100 kg initially (-35% from now
- currently unlimited).

Fuel mass flow ra
te limited to 100 kg/hr max - currently unlimited.

Potent Energy Recovery Systems (ERS) are allowed

With direct fuel injection (DI), fuel is sprayed directly into the combustion
chamber rather than into the inlet tract upstream of the inlet valves.
The fuel-air mixture is formed within the cylinder, so great precision is
required in metering and directing the fuel from the injector nozzle. This
is a key sub-system at the heart of the fuel efficiency and power delivery
of the Power Unit.
A motor generator unit (MGU) is an electrical machine. When operating
as a motor, the MGU converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.
When it operates as a generator the MGU converts mechanical energy
to electrical. The 2014 Power Unit uses two MGUs; an MGU-H (H for Heat
-- exhaust energy recovery) and MGU-K (K for Kinetic -- kinetic energy
recovery during braking).
The MGU-K is connected to the crankshaft of the internal combustion
engine and is capable of recovering or providing power (limited to 120
kW or 160 bhp by the rules). Under braking, the MGU-K operates as a
generator to slow the car (reducing the heat dissipated in the brakes)
and so recovers some of the kinetic energy and converts it into
electricity. Under acceleration, the MGU-K is powered (from the Energy
Store and/or from the MGU-H) and acts as a motor to propel the car.
The MGU-H is connected to the turbocharger. Acting as a generator,
it absorbs power from the turbine shaft to recover heat energy from
the exhaust gases. The electrical energy can be either directed to the
MGU-K or to the battery for storage for later use. The MGU-H is also used
to control the speed of the turbocharger to match the air requirement of
the engine (eg to slow it down in place of a wastegate or to accelerate it
to compensate for turbo-lag.)
The Power Unit's ERS (Energy Recovery System) uses the MGU-H and
MGU-K plus an Energy Store, plus some power and control electronics.
Heat and Kinetic Energy recovered can be consumed immediately if
required by the other MGU, or used to charge the Energy Store. The
stored energy can be used to propel the car by the MGU-K or to
accelerate the turbocharger by the MGU-H. Compared to 2013 KERS, the
ERS of the 2014 Power Unit will have twice the power (120 kW vs 60
kW) and a performance effect 10 times greater.
Formula 1

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